Use of single session hypnosis for smoking cessation.
Addict Behav. 1988;13(2):205-8.
Twenty of sixty volunteers for smoking cessation were assigned to single-session hypnosis, 20 to a placebo control condition, and 20 to a no-treatment control condition. The single-session hypnosis group smoked significantly less cigarettes and were significantly more abstinent than a placebo control group and a no treatment control group at posttest, and 4-week, 12-week, 24-week and 48-week follow-ups.
Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Acupuncture, hypnotherapy, and aversive smoking are the most frequently studied alternative smoking cessation aids. These aids are often used as alternatives to pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation; however, their efficacy is unclear.
We carried out a random effect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of alternative smoking cessation aids. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO databases through December 2010. We only included trials that reported cessation outcomes as point prevalence or continuous abstinence at 6 or 12 months.
Fourteen trials were identified; 6 investigated acupuncture (823 patients); 4 investigated hypnotherapy (273 patients); and 4 investigated aversive smoking (99 patients). The estimated mean treatment effects were acupuncture (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-12.07), hypnotherapy (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 0.98-21.01), and aversive smoking (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.26-14.38).
Our results suggest that acupuncture and hypnotherapy may help smokers quit. Aversive smoking also may help smokers quit; however, there are no recent trials investigating this intervention. More evidence is needed to determine whether alternative interventions are as efficacious as pharmacotherapies.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The reply. [Am J Med. 2013]
Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trial.
Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 May;10(5):811-8. doi: 10.1080/14622200802023833.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypnosis would be more effective in helping smokers quit than standard behavioral counseling when both interventions are combined with nicotine patches (NP). A total of 286 current smokers were enrolled in a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants in both treatment conditions were seen for two 60-min sessions, and received three follow-up phone calls and 2 months of NP. At 6 months, 29% of the hypnosis group reported 7-day point-prevalence abstinence compared with 23% of the behavioral counseling group (relative risk [RR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.84-1.92). Based on biochemical or proxy confirmation, 26% of the participants in the hypnosis group were abstinent at 6 months compared with 18% of the behavioral group (RR = 1.44; 95% CI 0.91-2.30). At 12 months, the self-reported 7-day point-prevalence quit rate was 24% for the hypnosis group and 16% for the behavioral group (RR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.90-2.40). Based on biochemical or proxy confirmation, 20% of the participants in the hypnosis group were abstinent at 12 months compared with 14% of the behavioral group (RR = 1.40; 95% CI 0.81-2.42). Among participants with a history of depression, hypnosis yielded significantly higher validated point-prevalence quit rates at 6 and 12 months than standard treatment. It was concluded that hypnosis combined with NP compares favorably with standard behavioral counseling in generating long-term quit rates.
Intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation: a prospective study.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006 Jul;54(3):303-15.
This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The hypnotherapy involved multiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, individualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition. The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p < .05).
Guided health imagery for smoking cessation and long-term abstinence.
J Nurs Scholarsh. 2005;37(3):245-50.
To examine the effectiveness of guided imagery for immediate smoking cessation and long-term abstinence in adult smokers.
A repeated measures design was used with 71 smokers recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic, 38 in the intervention group, and 33 in the control group.
Both study groups received educational and counseling sessions in their homes. The intervention group was provided with additional instruction in the use of guided imagery and was encouraged to practice this imagery at least once per day with a 20-minute audio-taped exercise for reinforcement. The repeated measures included smoking rates (cigarettes per day) that were measured and confirmed through corroborating friends and family.
At 24-months after the intervention, smoking abstinence rates were significantly higher for the guided health imagery intervention group (26% abstinence rate versus 12% abstinence rate for the placebo-control group).
Guided imagery was an effective intervention for long-term smoking cessation and abstinence in adult smokers.
Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: preliminary results of a three-session intervention.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Jan;52(1):73-81.
This study presents preliminary data regarding hypnosis treatment for smoking cessation in a clinical setting. An individualized, 3-session hypnosis treatment is described. Thirty smokers enrolled in an HMO were referred by their primary physician for treatment. Twenty-one patients returned after an initial consultation and received hypnosis for smoking cessation. At the end of treatment, 81% of those patients reported that they had stopped smoking, and 48% reported abstinence at 12 months posttreatment. Most patients (95%) were satisfied with the treatment they received. Recommendations for future research to empirically evaluate this hypnosis treatment are discussed.
Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion.
Psychol Rep. 1994 Oct;75(2):851-7.
Increased rates of smoking initiation and smoking-related illness among women have narrowed the gender gap in smoking behavior. Past studies of performance by gender in prevention and treatment programs have reported reduced success with women and have suggested a need for stronger interventions having greater effects on both genders' smoking cessation. A field study of 93 male and 93 female CMHC outpatients examined the facilitation of smoking cessation by combining hypnosis and aversion treatments. After the 2-wk. program, 92% or 86 of the men and 90% or 84 of the women reported abstinence, and at 3-mo. follow-up, 86% or 80 of the men and 87% or 81 of the women reported continued abstinence. Although this field study in a clinical setting lacked rigorous measurement and experimental controls, the program suggested greater efficacy of smoking cessation by both sexes for combined hypnosis and aversion techniques.